Thomas Jefferson citations

Thomas Jefferson foto
2  0

Thomas Jefferson

Date de naissance: 13. avril 1743
Date de décès: 4. juillet 1826

Publicité

Thomas Jefferson II, né le 13 avril 1743 à Shadwell et mort le 4 juillet 1826 à Monticello , est un homme d'État américain, troisième président des États-Unis, en fonction de 1801 à 1809. Il est également secrétaire d'État des États-Unis entre 1790 et 1793 et vice-président de 1797 à 1801.

Né au sein d'une famille d'origine britannique, il fait ses études en Virginie. Il sort diplômé du collège de William et Mary et exerce un temps les fonctions de magistrat, défendant parfois des esclaves cherchant à recouvrer leur liberté. Durant la révolution américaine, il représente la Virginie au Congrès continental et participe activement à la rédaction de la Déclaration d'indépendance des États-Unis en 1776 ; il est également à l'origine de la loi sur la liberté religieuse et sert en tant que gouverneur de son État pendant la guerre contre les Anglais de 1779 à 1781. Jefferson occupe ensuite le poste d'ambassadeur en France de 1785 à 1789 puis devient le premier secrétaire d'État des États-Unis sous la présidence de George Washington. Aux côtés de James Madison, il fonde le Parti républicain-démocrate qui s'oppose au Parti fédéraliste quant à la politique du pays et conteste la position du gouvernement au sujet des lois sur les étrangers et la sédition.

En tant que président, Jefferson préserve les échanges maritimes et les intérêts commerciaux des États-Unis face aux pirates barbaresques et à l'hostilité des Britanniques. Il négocie avec Napoléon la vente de la Louisiane, doublant la superficie du pays, et à la suite des négociations de paix avec la France, son administration procède à la réduction des moyens militaires. Réélu en 1804, Jefferson voit son second mandat ponctué par des difficultés majeures, incluant le procès du vice-président Aaron Burr et la chute du commerce extérieur des États-Unis à la suite de la mise en place des lois sur l'embargo en 1807, en réponse aux menaces exercées par les Anglais sur la navigation américaine. Ayant déjà pris en 1803 la décision — controversée — de transférer des tribus amérindiennes vers la Louisiane, il ratifie la loi interdisant l'importation des esclaves en 1807.

Homme des Lumières et polyglotte, Jefferson se passionne pour de nombreuses disciplines, allant de la géométrie aux mathématiques en passant par la mécanique et l'horticulture, et se révèle également être un architecte confirmé de tradition classique ; en outre, son intérêt marqué pour la religion et la philosophie lui valent la présidence de la Société américaine de philosophie. Bien qu'opposé au principe d'une religion organisée, il est cependant influencé à la fois par le christianisme et le déisme. Il fonde l'université de Virginie peu après sa retraite des affaires publiques et continue à entretenir une abondante correspondance avec des personnalités influentes du monde entier.

L'action politique de Jefferson a été commentée de façon très positive par les historiens, notamment sa contribution de premier ordre à la Déclaration d'indépendance des États-Unis, son positionnement en faveur de la liberté religieuse et de la tolérance dans son État de Virginie et l'acquisition de la Louisiane sous sa présidence. Toutefois, certains spécialistes se montrent plus critiques sur sa vie privée, citant par exemple le décalage existant entre ses principes libéraux et le fait qu'il ait possédé des esclaves dans le cadre de la gestion de ses plantations. Les études universitaires le classent systématiquement parmi les plus grands présidents de l'histoire américaine.

Auteurs similaires

James Madison foto
James Madison
homme d'État américain
Richard Buckminster Fuller foto
Richard Buckminster Fuller
architecte, designer, inventeur, écrivain et futuriste amér…
John Hay foto
John Hay
politicien américain
John O. Brennan foto
John O. Brennan
politicien américain
Elena Kagan foto
Elena Kagan
juge à la Cour suprême des États-Unis
Henry Wilson foto
Henry Wilson
politicien américain
James Blaine foto
James Blaine
politicien américain
James Abram Garfield foto
James Abram Garfield
président des États-Unis en 1881

Citations Thomas Jefferson

Publicité

„I cannot live without books.“

— Thomas Jefferson
Letter to John Adams (10 June 1815)

„I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale.“

— Thomas Jefferson
Context: We may say with truth and meaning that governments are more or less republican, as they have more or less of the element of popular election and control in their composition; and believing, as I do, that the mass of the citizens is the safest depository of their own rights, and especially, that the evils flowing from the duperies of the people are less injurious than those from the egoism of their agents, I am a friend to that composition of government which has in it the most of this ingredient. And I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale. [http://www.britannica.com/presidents/article-9116907 Letter to John Taylor (28 May 1816) ME 15:23]

Publicité

„In matters of style, swim with the current: in matters of principle, stand like a rock.“

— Thomas Jefferson
As quoted in Careertracking: 26 success Shortcuts to the Top (1988) by James Calano and Jeff Salzman; though used in an address by Bill Clinton (31 March 1997), and sometimes cited to Notes on the State of Virginia (1787) no earlier occurence of this has yet been located.

Publicité

„Our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry...“

— Thomas Jefferson, The Statute Of Virginia For Religious Freedom
Context: Well aware that the opinions and belief of men depend not on their own will, but follow involuntarily the evidence proposed to their minds; that Almighty God hath created the mind free, and manifested his supreme will that free it shall remain by making it altogether insusceptible of restraint; that all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments, or burthens, or by civil incapacitations, tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness, and are a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, who being lord both of body and mind, yet choose not to propagate it by coercions on either, as was in his Almighty power to do, but to exalt it by its influence on reason alone; that the impious presumption of legislature and ruler, civil as well as ecclesiastical, who, being themselves but fallible and uninspired men, have assumed dominion over the faith of others, setting up their own opinions and modes of thinking as the only true and infallible, and as such endeavoring to impose them on others, hath established and maintained false religions over the greatest part of the world and through all time: That to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinions which he disbelieves and abhors, is sinful and tyrannical; … that our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions, any more than our opinions in physics or geometry; and therefore the proscribing any citizen as unworthy the public confidence by laying upon him an incapacity of being called to offices of trust or emolument, unless he profess or renounce this or that religions opinion, is depriving him injudiciously of those privileges and advantages to which, in common with his fellow-citizens, he has a natural right; that it tends also to corrupt the principles of that very religion it is meant to encourage, by bribing with a monopoly of worldly honours and emolumerits, those who will externally profess and conform to it; that though indeed these are criminals who do not withstand such temptation, yet neither are those innocent who lay the bait in their way; that the opinions of men are not the object of civil government, nor under its jurisdiction; that to suffer the civil magistrate to intrude his powers into the field of opinion and to restrain the profession or propagation of principles on supposition of their ill tendency is a dangerous fallacy, which at once destroys all religious liberty, … and finally, that truth is great and will prevail if left to herself; that she is the proper and sufficient antagonist to error, and has nothing to fear from the conflict unless by human interposition disarmed of her natural weapons, free argument and debate; errors ceasing to be dangerous when it is permitted freely to contradict them. A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, Chapter 82 (1779). Published in [http://oll.libertyfund.org/ToC/0054.php The Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes], Federal Edition, Paul Leicester Ford, ed., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904, [http://oll.libertyfund.org/Texts/Jefferson0136/Works/0054-01_Bk.pdf Vol. 1], pp. 438–441. [http://web.archive.org/web/19990128135214/http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7842/bill-act.htm Comparison of Jefferson's proposed draft and the bill enacted]

„The greatest good we can do our country is to heal it’s party divisions & make them one people. I do not speak of their leaders who are incurable, but of the honest and well-intentioned body of the people.“

— Thomas Jefferson
Context: I am sorry the person recommended has not been agreeable to all the republicans, but I am more concerned to see in this disapprobation a germ of division which, if not smothered, will continue you under that rule from which union is relieving our fellow citizens in other states. It is disheartening to see, on the approaching crisis of election, a division of that description of Republicans, which has certainly no strength to spare. But, my dear friend, if we do not learn to sacrifice small differences of opinion, we can never act together. Every man cannot have his way in all things. If his own opinion prevails at some times, he should acquiesce on seeing that of others preponderate at others. Without this mutual disposition we are disjointed individuals, but not a society. My position is painful enough between federalists who cry out on the first touch of their monopoly, and republicans who clamor for universal removal. A subdivision of the latter will increase the perplexity. I am proceeding with deliberation and inquiry to do what I think just to both descriptions and conciliatory to both. The greatest good we can do our country is to heal it’s party divisions & make them one people. I do not speak of their leaders who are incurable, but of the honest and well-intentioned body of the people. I consider the pure federalist as a republican who would prefer a somewhat stronger executive; and the republican as one more willing to trust the legislature as a broader representation of the people, and a safer deposit of power for many reasons. But both sects are republican, entitled to the confidence of their fellow citizens. Not so their quondam leaders, covering under the mask of federalism hearts devoted to monarchy. The Hamiltonians, the [http://www. monticello. org/mulberry-row/people/essex Essex-men], the revolutionary tories &c. They have a right to tolerance, but neither to confidence nor power. It is very important that the pure federalist and republican should see in the opinion of each other but a shade of his own, which by a union of action will be lessened by one-half: that they should see & fear the monarchist as their common enemy, on whom they should keep their eyes, but keep off their hands. Thomas Jefferson, letter to John Dickinson (23 July 1801), published in [http://oll.libertyfund.org/ToC/0054.php The Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes], Federal Edition, Paul Leicester Ford, ed., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904, [http://files.libertyfund.org/files/757/0054-09_Bk.pdf Vol. 9], pp. 280-282.

Prochain
Anniversaires aujourd'hui
James H. Duff foto
James H. Duff
politicien américain 1883 - 1969
Thomas Jonathan Jackson foto
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
militaire américain 1824 - 1863
Joseph O'Conor foto
Joseph O'Conor
acteur et dramaturge 1916 - 2001
Paul Henri Thiry d'Holbach foto
Paul Henri Thiry d'Holbach9
savant français et philosophe matérialiste, d'origine allem… 1723 - 1789
Un autre 65 ans aujourd'hui
Auteurs similaires
James Madison foto
James Madison
homme d'État américain
Richard Buckminster Fuller foto
Richard Buckminster Fuller
architecte, designer, inventeur, écrivain et futuriste amér…
John Hay foto
John Hay
politicien américain