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Jacques Derrida

Date de naissance: 15. juillet 1930
Date de décès: 9. octobre 2004

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Jacques Derrida est un philosophe français né le 15 juillet 1930 à El Biar et mort le 8 octobre 2004 à Paris.

Professeur à l'École normale supérieure, puis directeur d'études à l'École des hautes études en sciences sociales, il a créé et développé l'école de pensée autour du déconstructionnisme. Dans la lignée de Husserl et de Heidegger, Derrida remet en question la phénoménologie et la métaphysique traditionnelle et introduit une nouvelle manière de penser les sciences humaines.

Le point de départ de son œuvre est une critique de la linguistique et de la place dominante qu'elle occupe dans le champ des sciences humaines. Dans son ouvrage De la grammatologie , Derrida montre que le modèle linguistique alors dominant repose sur une contradiction : la langue serait constituée d'une parole orale, dont l'écriture serait la transcription. La vraie langue serait donc la langue orale. Mais la linguistique s'appuie sur la langue écrite pour la structure de la langue, de sorte que l'origine de la langue écrite est la parole vive, mais que l'origine de la parole vive est la langue écrite. Derrida transpose ici dans le domaine de la linguistique le questionnement de l'origine qui était celui de Husserl dans L'Origine de la géométrie et introduit la notion de "supplément originaire", ou simplement de "supplément".

Cette contradiction de l'origine, posée d'abord — au niveau de la langue — entre parole et écriture, va ensuite se répercuter dans tous les domaines où Derrida portera son investigation : structure d'un texte et supplément n'entrant pas dans cette structure mais la fondant , œuvre d'art et cadre ou marge de l'œuvre , mort d'une idéologie et principe fondateur de cette idéologie , donner la mort et assumer la responsabilité de la mort donnée , interrogations sur l'hostilité et l'hospitalité', sur la différence sexuelle…

En 2007, Derrida était considéré par The Times Higher Education Guide comme le troisième auteur le plus cité dans les ouvrages de sciences humaines de l’année.

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Citations Jacques Derrida

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„The history of metaphysics, like the history of the West, is the history of these metaphors and metonymies. It’s matrix—If you will pardon me for demonstrating so little and for being elliptical in order to come more quickly to my principle theme—is the determination of Being as presence in all sense of this word.“

— Jacques Derrida
Context: The history of metaphysics, like the history of the West, is the history of these metaphors and metonymies. It’s matrix—If you will pardon me for demonstrating so little and for being elliptical in order to come more quickly to my principle theme—is the determination of Being as presence in all sense of this word. Structure, Sign and Play

„The age is off its hinges. Everything, beginning with time, seems out of kilter, unjust, dis-adjusted. The world is going very badly, it wears as it grows“

— Jacques Derrida
Context: The time is out of joint. The world is going badly. It is worn but its wear no longer counts. Old age or youth-one no longer counts in that way. The world has more than one age. We lack the measure of the measure. We no longer realize the wear, we no longer take account of it as of a single age in the progress of history. Neither maturation, nor crisis, nor even agony. Something else. What is happening is happening to age itself, it strikes a blow at the teleological order of history. What is coming, in which the untimely appears, is happening to time but it does not happen in time. Contretemps. The time is out of joint. Theatrical speech, Hamlet's speech before the theater of the world, of history, and of politics. The age is off its hinges. Everything, beginning with time, seems out of kilter, unjust, dis-adjusted. The world is going very badly, it wears as it grows, as the Painter also says at the beginning of Timon of Athens (which is Marx's play, is it not). For, this time, it is a painter's speech, as if he were speaking of a spectacle or before a tableau: "How goes the world?-It wears, sir, as it grows. Wear and Tears (tableu of a ageless world)

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„The time is out of joint. The world is going badly. It is worn but its wear no longer counts. Old age or youth-one no longer counts in that way. The world has more than one age. We lack the measure of the measure. We no longer realize the wear, we no longer take account of it as of a single age in the progress of history. Neither maturation, nor crisis, nor even agony. Something else. What is happening is happening to age itself, it strikes a blow at the teleological order of history. What is coming, in which the untimely appears, is happening to time but it does not happen in time. Contretemps. The time is out of joint.“

— Jacques Derrida
Context: The time is out of joint. The world is going badly. It is worn but its wear no longer counts. Old age or youth-one no longer counts in that way. The world has more than one age. We lack the measure of the measure. We no longer realize the wear, we no longer take account of it as of a single age in the progress of history. Neither maturation, nor crisis, nor even agony. Something else. What is happening is happening to age itself, it strikes a blow at the teleological order of history. What is coming, in which the untimely appears, is happening to time but it does not happen in time. Contretemps. The time is out of joint. Theatrical speech, Hamlet's speech before the theater of the world, of history, and of politics. The age is off its hinges. Everything, beginning with time, seems out of kilter, unjust, dis-adjusted. The world is going very badly, it wears as it grows, as the Painter also says at the beginning of Timon of Athens (which is Marx's play, is it not). For, this time, it is a painter's speech, as if he were speaking of a spectacle or before a tableau: "How goes the world?-It wears, sir, as it grows. Wear and Tears (tableu of a ageless world)

„Monsters cannot be announced. One cannot say: 'here are our monsters', without immediately turning the monsters into pets.“

— Jacques Derrida
Some Statements and Truisms about Neologisms, Newisms, Postisms, Parasitisms, and other small Seismisms, The States of Theory, ed. David Carroll, New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.

„I speak only one language, and it is not my own.“

— Jacques Derrida, Monolingualism of the Other: or, The Prosthesis of Origin

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