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Fidel Castro

Date de naissance: 13. août 1926
Date de décès: 25. novembre 2016
Autres noms: Castro,Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz,Ruz Fidel Alejandro Castro

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Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz , né le 13 août 1926 à Birán et mort le 25 novembre 2016 à La Havane, est un révolutionnaire et homme d'État cubain qui a gouverné la République de Cuba comme Premier ministre de 1959 à 1976 et ensuite comme président de 1976 à 2008.

Il est un des principaux dirigeants de la Révolution cubaine qui renversa le régime dictatorial du général Fulgencio Batista, successivement Premier ministre de l'île de février 1959 à décembre 1976, puis président du Conseil d’État de Cuba depuis la création de cette fonction et également président du Conseil des ministres , jusqu'à sa démission pour des raisons de santé en février 2008. Le 24 février 2008, l’Assemblée nationale a élu son frère Raúl Castro pour lui succéder comme chef de l'État. Ce dernier assume l'intérim du pouvoir depuis le 31 juillet 2006. Fidel Castro occupe la fonction de Premier secrétaire du Parti communiste de Cuba, de la création de celle-ci en 1965 jusqu'au 19 avril 2011, date à laquelle Raúl Castro lui succède à ce poste.

Son gouvernement est régulièrement dénoncé dans les médias occidentaux comme étant une dictature,,,,,. Plusieurs observateurs, think-tank et ONG comme Amnesty International ont critiqué des dérives autoritaires,,,,. Le journaliste cubain en exil Jacobo Machover parle même de « pouvoir absolu ».

Cette vision est contestée par ses partisans, : Castro jouissait d'une certaine popularité auprès d'hommes politiques et d'intellectuels en Amérique latine, en Afrique , en France et même aux États-Unis, où le révérend Jesse Jackson, ancien candidat à l'investiture du Parti démocrate pour l'élection présidentielle américaine, déclara en 1984 que Fidel Castro était « le politicien le plus honnête et le plus courageux qu'[il ait] jamais rencontré ».

Fidel Castro, son frère le lieutenant Raúl Castro, et le docteur Ernesto Guevara ont donné à la révolution, officiellement nationaliste au départ, une orientation « marxiste-léniniste » au début des années 1960, au moment de son affrontement avec les administrations américaines de l'époque. Le pays se rapprocha alors de l'Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques . À la suite de la révolution, le gouvernement cubain, sous l'impulsion de Castro, de son frère et de Che Guevara, instaura progressivement une république socialiste à parti unique.

Il est également député de Santiago depuis 1976, et Premier secrétaire du Parti communiste de Cuba depuis sa refondation en 1965. Réélu tous les cinq ans, Fidel Castro a été au pouvoir face à dix présidents des États-Unis .

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Citations Fidel Castro

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„The important thing is the revolution!“

— Fidel Castro
Context: Warfare is a means and not an end. Warfare is a tool of revolutionaries. The important thing is the revolution! The important thing is the revolutionary cause, revolutionary ideas, revolutionary objectives, revolutionary sentiments, revolutionary virtues! Speech at the memorial service http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1967/esp/f181067e.html of Che Guevara (8 October 1967)

„Man is born egotistical, a result of the conditioning of nature. Nature fills us with instincts; it is education that fills us with virtues.“

— Fidel Castro
Context: Man is born egotistical, a result of the conditioning of nature. Nature fills us with instincts; it is education that fills us with virtues. Nature makes us do things instinctively; one of these is the instinct for survival which can lead to infamy, while on the other side, our conscience can lead us to great acts of heroism. It doesn’t matter what each one of us is like, how different we are from each other, but when we unite we become one. It is amazing that in spite of the differences between human beings, they can become as one in a single instant or they can be millions, and they can be a million strong just through their ideas. Nobody followed the Revolution as a cult to anyone or because they felt personal sympathy with any one person. It is only by embracing certain values and ideas that an entire people can develop the same willingness to make sacrifices of any one of those who loyally and sincerely try to lead them toward their destiny.

„Here is a conclusion I’ve come to after many years: among all the errors we may have committed, the greatest of them all was that we believed that someone really knew something about socialism, or that someone actually knew how to build socialism.“

— Fidel Castro
Context: Here is a conclusion I’ve come to after many years: among all the errors we may have committed, the greatest of them all was that we believed that someone really knew something about socialism, or that someone actually knew how to build socialism. It seemed to be a sure fact, as well-known as the electrical system conceived by those who thought they were experts in electrical systems. Whenever they said: “That’s the formula”, we thought they knew. Just as if someone is a physician. You are not going to debate anemia, or intestinal problems, or any other condition with a physician; nobody argues with the physician. You can think that he is a good doctor or a bad one, you can follow his advice or not, but you won’t argue with him. Which of us would argue with a doctor, or a mathematician, or a historian, or an expert in literature or in any other subject? But we must be idiots if we think, for example, that economy is an exact and eternal science and that it existed since the days of Adam and Eve, and I offer my apologies to the thousands of economists in our country.

Publicité

„Capitalism—and I say it with such gusto—capitalism is so obsolete that it is dying by itself.“

— Fidel Castro
Context: Let us yield a bit. Let us grant socialism a few more years. Socialism is so obsolete, it is dying by itself.… Did I say socialism? I assure you on my honor this was not a mental slip. This was a slip of the tongue. Do not forget that. Capitalism—and I say it with such gusto—capitalism is so obsolete that it is dying by itself. Comments on Latin American Debt (15 September 1985) http://info.lanic.utexas.edu/la/cb/cuba/castro/1985/19850915

„After a week, I decided religion wasn't for me.“

— Fidel Castro
Context: When I was a young boy, my father taught me that to be a good Catholic, I had to confess at church if I ever had impure thoughts about a girl. That very evening, I had to rush to confess my sin. And the next night, and the next. After a week, I decided religion wasn't for me. As quoted in The Atheist's Bible (2007) edited by Joan Konner, p. 62

„Revolution is the sense of the historical moment; it is changing everything that must be changed“

— Fidel Castro
Context: Revolution is the sense of the historical moment; it is changing everything that must be changed; it is full equality and freedom; it is being treated and treating others like human beings; it is emancipating ourselves, by ourselves and with our very own efforts; it is challenging the dominant powerful forces within and outside of the social and national arena; it is defending the values one believes in at the cost of any sacrifice; it is modesty, selflessness, altruism, solidarity and heroism; it is fighting with audacity, intelligence and realism; it is never telling a lie or violating ethical principles; it is the profound conviction that there is no force on earth that can crush truth and ideas. Revolution is unity, it is independence, it is fighting for our dreams of justice for Cuba and the world that is the basis of our patriotism, our socialism and our internationalism. As quoted in Speech by Dr. Fidel Castro Ruz, President of the Republic of Cuba, at the mass rally called by the Cuban youths, students and workers on the occasion of the International Labor Day at the Revolution Square http://www.fidelcastro.cu/en/discursos/speech-mass-rally-called-cuban-youths-students-and-workers-revolution-square-occasion (May 1, 2000)

„It is amazing that in spite of the differences between human beings, they can become as one in a single instant or they can be millions, and they can be a million strong just through their ideas.“

— Fidel Castro
Context: Man is born egotistical, a result of the conditioning of nature. Nature fills us with instincts; it is education that fills us with virtues. Nature makes us do things instinctively; one of these is the instinct for survival which can lead to infamy, while on the other side, our conscience can lead us to great acts of heroism. It doesn’t matter what each one of us is like, how different we are from each other, but when we unite we become one. It is amazing that in spite of the differences between human beings, they can become as one in a single instant or they can be millions, and they can be a million strong just through their ideas. Nobody followed the Revolution as a cult to anyone or because they felt personal sympathy with any one person. It is only by embracing certain values and ideas that an entire people can develop the same willingness to make sacrifices of any one of those who loyally and sincerely try to lead them toward their destiny.

Publicité

„I would dare say that today this species is facing a very real and true danger of extinction, and no one can be sure, listen to this well, no one can be sure that it will survive this danger.“

— Fidel Castro
Context: I would dare say that today this species is facing a very real and true danger of extinction, and no one can be sure, listen to this well, no one can be sure that it will survive this danger. Well, the fact that the species would not survive was discussed about 2,000 years ago. I remember that when I was a student I heard of the Apocalypse, a book of prophesy in the Bible. Apparently, 2000 years ago someone realized that this weak species could one day disappear.

„All sense of dialectics is lost when someone believes that today’s economy is identical to the economy 50 or 100 or 150 years ago, or that it is identical to the one in Lenin’s day or to the time when Karl Marx lived.“

— Fidel Castro
Context: All sense of dialectics is lost when someone believes that today’s economy is identical to the economy 50 or 100 or 150 years ago, or that it is identical to the one in Lenin’s day or to the time when Karl Marx lived. Revisionism is a thousand miles away from my mind and I truly revere Marx, Engels and Lenin.

„I feel my belief in sacrifice and struggle getting stronger.“

— Fidel Castro
Context: I feel my belief in sacrifice and struggle getting stronger. I despise the kind of existence that clings to the miserly trifles of comfort and self-interest. I think that a man should not live beyond the age when he begins to deteriorate, when the flame that lighted the brightest moment of his life has weakened. Letter from prison (19 December 1953)

„A revolution is not a trail of roses.… A revolution is a fight to the death between the future and the past.“

— Fidel Castro
Speech on the second anniversary of the triumph of the revolution (2 January 1961) http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1961/esp/f020161e.html

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