Ivan Illich citations
Date de naissance: 4. septembre 1926
Date de décès: 2. décembre 2002
Ivan Illich est un penseur de l'écologie politique et une figure importante de la critique de la société industrielle.
Citations Ivan Illich
„Certains se croient révolutionnaires et sont encore victimes de l'école. Ils en viennent à envisager une «libération » que leur donnerait une institution. Il faut d'abord se libérer de l'école pour dissiper de telles illusions. Faudrait-il encore avoir recours à un plan directeur, à une nouvelle manipulation, pour découvrir que s'instruire s'accommode mal de l'instruction? La déscolarisation est notre responsabilité personnelle, et il revient à chacun de nous de trouver en lui la force nécessaire.“
„Des corps qui nécessitent d'être convoyés quotidiennement, voilà qui était impensable il y a quelques générations. Lorsque nous sommes au volant ou prenons l'avion, nous parlons d'« aller quelque part ». Les manuels d'ingénierie emploient le terme d'« autolocomotion» lorsque nous nous servons de nos jambes et non de l'ascenseur. Estimant avoir droit à des béquilles hypermécanisées, nous nous sentons dépossédés si nous devons nous servir de nos pieds.“
„Cette crise oblige l'homme à choisir entre des outils conviviaux et l'écrasement par la méga-machine, entre la croissance indéfinie et l'acceptation de bornes multidimensionnelles. La seule réponse possible consiste à reconnaître sa profondeur et à accepter le seul principe de solution qui s'offre : établir, par accord politique, une autolimitation.“
„Grâce à l'initiation de l'école, nous participons au mythe de la consommation illimitée. Ce mythe moderne se fonde sur la croyance selon laquelle le système de production fabrique un bon produit, et que, par conséquent, puisque valeur il y a, une demande va naître. L'école nous enseigne à croire que l'éducation est le produit de l'enseignement.“
„Le but qu'il faut poursuivre, qui est réalisable, c'est d'assurer à tous des possibilités éducatives égales. Confondre cet objectif et la scolarité obligatoire, c'est confondre le salut et l'Église. L'école est devenue la religion mondiale d'un prolétariat modernisé et elle offre ses vaines promesses de salut aux pauvres de l'ère technologique.“
„People called commons those parts of the environment for which customary law exacted specific forms of community respect.“
— Ivan Illich
Context: "Commons" is an Old English word. According to my Japanese friends, it is quite close to the meaning that iriai still has in Japanese. "Commons," like iriai, is a word which, in preindustrial times, was used to designate certain aspects of the environment. People called commons those parts of the environment for which customary law exacted specific forms of community respect. People called commons that part of the environment which lay beyond their own thresholds and outside of their own possessions, to which, however, they had recognized claims of usage, not to produce commodities but to provide for the subsistence of their households. The customary law which humanized the environment by establishing the commons was usually unwritten. It was unwritten law not only because people did not care to write it down, but because what it protected was a reality much too complex to fit into paragraphs. The law of the commons regulates the right of way, the right to fish and to hunt, to graze, and to collect wood or medicinal plants in the forest. An oak tree might be in the commons. Its shade, in summer, is reserved for the shepherd and his flock; its acorns are reserved for the pigs of the neighbouring peasants; its dry branches serve as fuel for the widows of the village; some of its fresh twigs in springtime are cut as ornaments for the church — and at sunset it might be the place for the village assembly. When people spoke about commons, iriai, they designated an aspect of the environment that was limited, that was necessary for the community's survival, that was necessary for different groups in different ways, but which, in a strictly economic sense, was not perceived as scarce.
„The impending loss of spirit, of soul, of what I call atmosphere, could go unnoticed.
Only persons who face one another in trust can allow its emergence. The bouquet of friendship varies with each breath, but when it is there it needs no name. For a long time I believed that there was no one noun for it, and no verb for its creation.“
— Ivan Illich
Context: The impending loss of spirit, of soul, of what I call atmosphere, could go unnoticed. Only persons who face one another in trust can allow its emergence. The bouquet of friendship varies with each breath, but when it is there it needs no name. For a long time I believed that there was no one noun for it, and no verb for its creation. Each time I tried one, I was discouraged; all the synonyms for it were shanghaied by its synthetic counterfeits: mass-produced fashions and cleverly marketed moods, chic feelings, swank highs and trendy tastes. Starting in the seventies, group dynamics retreats and psychic training, all to generate "atmosphere," became major businesses. Discreet silence about the issue I am raising seemed preferable to creating a misunderstanding. Then… I suddenly realized that there is indeed a very simple word that says what I cherished and tried to nourish, and that word is peace. Peace, however, not in any of the many ways its cognates are used all over the world, but peace in its post-classical, European meaning. Peace, in this sense, is the one strong word with which the atmosphere of friendship created among equals has been appropriately named. But to embrace this, one has to come to understand the origin of this peace in the conspirator, a curious ritual behavior almost forgotten today.
„It is astonishing what the devil says: I have all power, it has been given to me, and I am the one to hand it on — submit, and it is yours. Jesus of course does not submit“
— Ivan Illich
Context: Jesus was an anarchist savior. That's what the Gospels tell us. Just before He started out on His public life, Jesus went to the desert. He fasted, and after 40 days he was hungry. At this point the diabolos, appeared to tempt Him. First he asked Him to turn stone into bread, then to prove himself in a magic flight, and finally the devil, diabolos, "divider," offered Him power. Listen carefully to the words of this last of the three temptations: (Luke 4,6:) "I give you all power and glory, because I have received them and I give them to those whom I choose. Adore me and the power will be yours." It is astonishing what the devil says: I have all power, it has been given to me, and I am the one to hand it on — submit, and it is yours. Jesus of course does not submit, and sends the devilcumpower to Hell. Not for a moment, however, does Jesus contradict the devil. He does not question that the devil holds all power, nor that this power has been given to him, nor that he, the devil, gives it to whom he pleases. This is a point which is easily overlooked. By his silence Jesus recognizes power that is established as "devil" and defines Himself as The Powerless. He who cannot accept this view on power cannot look at establishments through the spectacle of the Gospel. This is what clergy and churches often have difficulty doing. They are so strongly motivated by the image of church as a "helping institution" that they are constantly motivated to hold power, share in it or, at least, influence it. The Educational enterprise in the Light of the Gospel (13 November 1988) http://www.davidtinapple.com/illich/1988_Educational.html.
„I will clarify a distinction that I consider fundamental to political ecology. I shall distinguish the environment as commons from the environment as resource.“
— Ivan Illich
Context: I will clarify a distinction that I consider fundamental to political ecology. I shall distinguish the environment as commons from the environment as resource. On our ability to make this particular distinction depends not only the construction of a sound theoretical ecology, but also — and more importantly — effective ecological jurisprudence.
„The shared breath, the con-spiratio are the "peace" understood as the community that arises from it.“
— Ivan Illich
Context: Community in our European tradition is not the outcome of an act of authoritative foundation, nor a gift from nature or its gods, nor the result of management, planning and design, but the consequence of a conspiracy, a deliberate, mutual, somatic and gratuitous gift to each other. The prototype of that conspiracy lies in the celebration of the early Christian liturgy in which, no matter their origin, men and women, Greeks and Jews, slaves and citizens, engender a physical reality that transcends them. The shared breath, the con-spiratio are the "peace" understood as the community that arises from it.