Norbert Wiener citations

Norbert Wiener foto
0  0

Norbert Wiener

Date de naissance: 26. novembre 1894
Date de décès: 18. mars 1964
Autres noms:نوربرت وینر

Publicité

Norbert Wiener est un mathématicien américain, théoricien et chercheur en mathématiques appliquées, surtout connu comme le père fondateur de la cybernétique.

Il fut un pionnier dans l'étude de la stochastique et du bruit, contribuant ainsi par ses travaux à l'électrotechnique, les télécommunications et les systèmes de contrôle. En fondant la cybernétique, Wiener introduit en science la notion de feedback , notion qui a des implications dans les domaines de l'ingénierie, des contrôles de système, l'informatique, la biologie, la psychologie, la philosophie et l'organisation de la société.

Il exposa ses théories sur la cybernétique dans son livre Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, parution qui bouscula durablement jusqu'au scandale, le monde des idées, traversant la pensée scientifique et philosophique de la deuxième moitié du XXe siècle, dont il est à ce titre, un des grands penseurs.

Citations Norbert Wiener

„A single inattention may lose a chess game, whereas a single successful approach to a problem, among many which have been relegated to the wastebasket, will make a mathematician's reputation.“

— Norbert Wiener
Context: The Advantage is that mathematics is a field in which one's blunders tend to show very clearly and can be corrected or erased with a stroke of the pencil. It is a field which has often been compared with chess, but differs from the latter in that it is only one's best moments that count and not one's worst. A single inattention may lose a chess game, whereas a single successful approach to a problem, among many which have been relegated to the wastebasket, will make a mathematician's reputation.

„We know that for a long time everything we do will be nothing more than the jumping off point for those who have the advantage of already being aware of our ultimate results.“

— Norbert Wiener
Context: We mathematicians who operate with nothing more expensive than paper and possibly printers' ink are quite reconciled to the fact that, if we are working in an active field, our discoveries will commence to be obsolete at the moment that they are written down or even at the moment they are conceived. We know that for a long time everything we do will be nothing more than the jumping off point for those who have the advantage of already being aware of our ultimate results. This is the meaning of the famous apothegm of Newton, when he said, "If I have seen further than other men, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants". p. 266

Publicité

„I do not expect to publish any future work of mine which may do damage in the hands of irresponsible militarists“

— Norbert Wiener
Context: The measures taken during the war by our military agencies, in restricting the free intercourse among scientists on related projects or even on the same project have gone so far that it is clear that if continued in time of peace, this policy will lead to the total irresponsibility of the scientist, and, ultimately, to the death of science.... The interchange of ideas, which is one of the greatest traditions of science, must of course receive certain limitations when the scientist becomes an arbiter of life and death.... I do not expect to publish any future work of mine which may do damage in the hands of irresponsible militarists... "A Scientist Rebels" Atlantic Monthly (Jan, 1947)

„The world of the future will be an even more demanding struggle against the limitations of our intelligence, not a comfortable hammock in which we can lie down to be waited upon by our robot slaves.“

— Norbert Wiener, The Human Use Of Human Beings: Cybernetics And Society
Context: [T]he future offers very little hope for those who expect that our new mechanical slaves will offer us a world in which we may rest from thinking. Help us they may, but at the cost of supreme demands upon our honesty and our intelligence. The world of the future will be an ever more demanding struggle against the limitations of our intelligence, not a comfortable hammock in which we can lie down to be waited upon by our robot slaves. p. 69

„Since Leibniz there has perhaps been no man who has had a full command of all the intellectual activity of his day. Since that time, science has been increasingly the task of specialists, in fields which show a tendency to grow progressively narrower... Today there are few scholars who can call themselves mathematicians or physicists or biologists without restriction. A man may be a topologist or a coleopterist. He will be filled with the jargon of his field, and will know all its literature and all its ramifications, but, more frequently than not, he will regard the next subject as something belonging to his colleague three doors down the corridor, and will consider any interest in it on his own part as an unwarrantable breach of privacy... There are fields of scientific work, as we shall see in the body of this book, which have been explored from the different sides of pure mathematics, statistics, electrical engineering, and neurophysiology; in which every single notion receives a separate name from each group, and in which important work has been triplicated or quadruplicated, while still other important work is delayed by the unavailability in one field of results that may have already become classical in the next field.
It is these boundary regions which offer the richest opportunities to the qualified investigator. They are at the same time the most refractory to the accepted techniques of mass attack and the division of labor. If the difficulty of a physiological problem is mathematical in essence, then physiologists ignorant of mathematics will get precisely as far as one physiologists ignorant of mathematics, and no further. If a physiologist who knows no mathematics works together with a mathematician who knows no physiology, the one will be unable to state his problem in terms that the other can manipulate, and the second will be unable to put the answers in any form that the first can understand... A proper exploration of these blank spaces on the map of science could only be made by a team of scientists, each a specialist in his own field but each possessing a thoroughly sound and trained acquaintance with the fields of his neighbors; all in the habit of working together, of knowing one another's intellectual customs, and of recognizing the significance of a colleague's new suggestion before it has taken on a full formal expression. The mathematician need not have the skill to conduct a physiological experiment, but he must have the skill to understand one, to criticize one, and to suggest one. The physiologist need not be able to prove a certain mathematical theorem, but he must be able to grasp its physiological significance and to tell the mathematician for what he should look. We had dreamed for years of an institution of independent scientists, working together in one of these backwoods of science, not as subordinates of some great executive officer, but joined by the desire, indeed by the spiritual necessity, to understand the region as a whole, and to lend one another the strength of that understanding.“

— Norbert Wiener
p. 2-4; As cited in: George Klir (2001) Facets of Systems Science, p. 47-48

Publicité
Publicité

„There are no answers, only cross-references.“

— Norbert Wiener
Norbert Wiener 1894-1964 (Vita Mathematica, 1990, p. 337) Wiener's Law of Libraries

Prochain
Anniversaires aujourd'hui
Susan Elizabeth Phillips foto
Susan Elizabeth Phillips4
écrivaine américaine 1948
Ahmadou Kourouma3
écrivain ivorien 1927 - 2003
Georges-Adrien Crapelet1
imprimeur 1789 - 1842
Un autre 9 ans aujourd'hui
Auteurs similaires
Richard Courant foto
Richard Courant
mathématicien allemand
Mark Kac foto
Mark Kac
mathématicien polono-américain
Barry Mazur foto
Barry Mazur
mathématicien américain
Gregory Chaitin
mathématicien américain
Leonard Eugene Dickson
mathématicien américain
David Eugene Smith foto
David Eugene Smith
mathématicien américain
John Baez foto
John Baez
physicien américain
Stanislaw Ulam foto
Stanislaw Ulam
mathématicien américain
Claude Shannon foto
Claude Shannon
mathématicien et théoricien de l'information américain
George Dantzig foto
George Dantzig
mathématicien américain