John Ronald Reuel Tolkien citations

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John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

Date de naissance: 3. janvier 1892
Date de décès: 2. septembre 1973
Autres noms:J. R. R. Tolkien,John Tolkien,J.R.R. Tolkien

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John Ronald Reuel Tolkien , plus connu sous la forme J. R. R. Tolkien, est un écrivain, poète, philologue et professeur d’université anglais, né le 3 janvier 1892 à Bloemfontein et mort le 2 septembre 1973 à Bournemouth. Il est principalement connu pour ses romans Le Hobbit et Le Seigneur des anneaux.

Après des études à Birmingham et à Oxford et l’expérience traumatisante de la Première Guerre mondiale, John Ronald Reuel Tolkien devient professeur assistant de langue anglaise à l’université de Leeds en 1920, puis professeur de vieil anglais à l’université d’Oxford en 1925 et professeur de langue et de littérature anglaises en 1945, toujours à Oxford. Il prend sa retraite en 1959. Durant sa carrière universitaire, il défend l’apprentissage des langues, surtout germaniques, et bouleverse l’étude du poème anglo-saxon Beowulf avec sa conférence Beowulf : Les Monstres et les Critiques . Son essai Du conte de fées est également considéré comme un texte crucial dans l’étude de ce genre littéraire.

Tolkien commence à écrire pour son plaisir dans les années 1910, élaborant toute une mythologie autour de langues qu’il invente. L’univers ainsi créé, la Terre du Milieu, prend forme au fil des réécritures et compositions. Son ami C. S. Lewis l’encourage dans cette voie, de même que les autres membres de leur cercle littéraire informel, les Inklings. En 1937, la publication du Hobbit fait de Tolkien un auteur pour enfants estimé. Sa suite longtemps attendue, Le Seigneur des anneaux, est d’une tonalité plus sombre. Elle paraît en 1954-1955 et devient un véritable phénomène de société dans les années 1960, notamment sur les campus américains. Tolkien travaille sur sa mythologie jusqu’à sa mort, mais ne parvient pas à donner une forme achevée au Silmarillion. Ce recueil de légendes des premiers âges de la Terre du Milieu est finalement mis en forme et publié à titre posthume en 1977 par son fils et exécuteur littéraire Christopher, en collaboration avec Guy Gavriel Kay. Depuis, Christopher Tolkien publie régulièrement des textes inédits de son père.

De nombreux auteurs ont publié des romans de fantasy avant Tolkien, mais le succès majeur remporté par Le Seigneur des anneaux au moment de sa publication en poche aux États-Unis est, pour une large part, à l’origine d’une renaissance populaire du genre. Tolkien est ainsi considéré, pour certains, comme le « père » ou l'un des « pères » de la fantasy moderne. Son œuvre a eu une influence majeure sur les auteurs ultérieurs de ce genre, en particulier par la rigueur avec laquelle il a construit son monde secondaire.

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Citations John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

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„The Evangelium has not abrogated legends; it has hallowed them, especially the "happy ending."“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: The Evangelium has not abrogated legends; it has hallowed them, especially the "happy ending." The Christian has still to work, with mind as well as body, to suffer, hope, and die; but he may now perceive that all his bents and faculties have a purpose, which can be redeemed. So great is the bounty with which he has been treated that he may now, perhaps, fairly dare to guess that in Fantasy he may actually assist in the effoliation and multiple enrichment of creation. All tales may come true; and yet, at the last, redeemed, they may be as like and unlike the forms that we give them as Man, finally redeemed, will be like and unlike the fallen that we know.

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„The news today about "Atomic bombs" is so horrifying one is stunned.“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: The news today about "Atomic bombs" is so horrifying one is stunned. The utter folly of these lunatic physicists to consent to do such work for war-purposes: calmly plotting the destruction of the world! Such explosives in men's hands, while their moral and intellectual status is declining, is about as useful as giving out firearms to all inmates of a gaol and then saying that you hope "this will ensure peace". But one good thing may arise out of it, I suppose, if the write-ups are not overheated: Japan ought to cave in. Well we're in God's hands. But He does not look kindly on Babel-builders. No. 102: From a letter to his son Christopher Tolkien (9 August, 1945)

„Why should a man be scorned if, finding himself in prison, he tries to get out and go home? Or if he cannot do so, he thinks and talks about other topics than jailers and prison-walls?“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: I have claimed that Escape is one of the main functions of fairy-stories, and since I do not disapprove of them, it is plain that I do not accept the tone of scorn or pity with which 'Escape' is now so often used. Why should a man be scorned if, finding himself in prison, he tries to get out and go home? Or if he cannot do so, he thinks and talks about other topics than jailers and prison-walls? The world outside has not become less real because the prisoner cannot see it.

„All tales may come true; and yet, at the last, redeemed, they may be as like and unlike the forms that we give them as Man, finally redeemed, will be like and unlike the fallen that we know.“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: The Evangelium has not abrogated legends; it has hallowed them, especially the "happy ending." The Christian has still to work, with mind as well as body, to suffer, hope, and die; but he may now perceive that all his bents and faculties have a purpose, which can be redeemed. So great is the bounty with which he has been treated that he may now, perhaps, fairly dare to guess that in Fantasy he may actually assist in the effoliation and multiple enrichment of creation. All tales may come true; and yet, at the last, redeemed, they may be as like and unlike the forms that we give them as Man, finally redeemed, will be like and unlike the fallen that we know.

„My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy (philosophically understood, meaning abolition of control not whiskered men with bombs) … the most improper job of any man, even saints (who at any rate were at least unwilling to take it on), is bossing other men. Not one in a million is fit for it, and least of all those who seek the opportunity. Letter to his son Christopher Tolkien (29 November, 1943) <!-- No. 64? -->

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„But the real soul-mate is the one you are actually married to.“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: Nearly all marriages, even happy ones, are mistakes: in the sense that almost certainly (in a more perfect world, or even with a little more care in this very imperfect one) both partners might be found more suitable mates. But the real soul-mate is the one you are actually married to. Letter to Michael Tolkien (March 1941)

„Nearly all marriages, even happy ones, are mistakes“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: Nearly all marriages, even happy ones, are mistakes: in the sense that almost certainly (in a more perfect world, or even with a little more care in this very imperfect one) both partners might be found more suitable mates. But the real soul-mate is the one you are actually married to. Letter to Michael Tolkien (March 1941)

„I should say that, in addition to my tree-love (it was originally called The Tree), it arose from my own pre-occupation with the Lord of the Rings, the knowledge that it would be finished in great detail or not at all, and the fear (near certainty) that it would be 'not at all'.“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: I should say that, in addition to my tree-love (it was originally called The Tree), it arose from my own pre-occupation with the Lord of the Rings, the knowledge that it would be finished in great detail or not at all, and the fear (near certainty) that it would be 'not at all'. The war had arisen to darken all horizons. But no such analyses are a complete explanation even of a short story... About "Leaf by Niggle", in a letter to Caroline Everett (24 June 1957)

„I have in this War a burning private grudge — which would probably make me a better soldier at 49 than I was at 22: against that ruddy little ignoramus Adolf Hitler“

— John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
Context: I have in this War a burning private grudge — which would probably make me a better soldier at 49 than I was at 22: against that ruddy little ignoramus Adolf Hitler (for the odd thing about demonic inspiration and impetus is that it in no way enhances the purely intellectual stature: it chiefly affects the mere will). Ruining, perverting, misapplying, and making for ever accursed, that noble northern spirit, a supreme contribution to Europe, which I have ever loved, and tried to present in its true light. No. 45: To his son Michael Tolkien (09 June, 1941)

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