Richard C. Lewontin citations

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Richard C. Lewontin

Date de naissance: 29. mars 1929

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Richard C. Lewontin est biologiste, généticien et philosophe de la biologie, professeur titulaire de la chaire Alexander Agassiz à l'Université de Harvard. Il est un commentateur social de sensibilité ouvertement marxiste. Il a enseigné la génétique, les statistiques et l'évolution à l'Université d'État de Caroline du Nord, à l'Université de Rochester, à l'Université de Chicago et à l'Université de Harvard. Il a été Président de la Société pour l'étude de l'évolution, de la Société Américaine des Naturalistes et de la Société pour la Biologie Moléculaire et l'Évolution. Depuis quelques années, il est coéditeur de The American Naturalist.

C'est un des chefs de file du développement de la base mathématique de la théorie de l'évolution et de la génétique des populations. Il a introduit les techniques de biologie moléculaire comme l'électrophorèse sur gel dans la recherche sur la génétique des populations en 1966. Dans un article écrit en collaboration avec J.L. Hubby dans le magazine Genetic de 1966, il a ouvert la voie au domaine de la recherche sur l'évolution moléculaire. En 1979, Lewontin et Stephen Jay Gould ont introduit le terme de « trompe » dans la théorie de l'évolution. Il consacre ainsi ses études à la variation génétique dans les protéines et dans l'ADN au sein des espèces.

D'un point de vue sociologique et social, Lewontin s'oppose fortement au déterminisme génétique et au néodarwinisme tels qu'ils s'expriment dans les domaines de la sociobiologie et de la psychologie évolutionniste. Auparavant, en tant que membre de Science for the People, il a dénoncé l'implication d'éminents scientifiques dans les programmes du Pentagone visant à développer des armements pour la guerre du Viêt Nam. Depuis les années 1990, il condamne le lobbying de l'OGM du « complexe génético-industriel »,.

D'un point de vue philosophique, il est matérialiste de type dialectique.

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Citations Richard C. Lewontin

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„Parts and wholes evolve in consequence of their relationship, and the relationship itself evolves.“

—  Richard C. Lewontin
Context: Parts and wholes evolve in consequence of their relationship, and the relationship itself evolves. These are the properties of things that we call dialectical: that one thing cannot exist without the other, that one acquires its properties from its relation to the other, that the properties of both evolve as a consequence of their interpenetration. The Dialectical Biologist (1985), co-written with Richard Levins, Introduction, p. 3.

„It is time for students of the evolutionary process, especially those who have been misquoted and used by the creationists, to state clearly that evolution is a fact, not theory, and that what is at issue within biology are questions of details of the process and the relative importance of different mechanisms of evolution. It is a fact that the earth, with liquid water, is more than 3.6 billion years old. It is a fact that cellular life has been around for at least half of that period and that organized multicellular life is at least 800 million years old. It is a fact that major life forms now on earth were not at all represented in the past. There were no birds or mammals 250 million years ago. It is a fact that major life forms of the past are no longer living. There used to be dinosaurs and Pithecanthropus, and there are none now. It is a fact that all living forms come from previous living forms. Therefore, all present forms of life arose from ancestral forms that were different. Birds arose from nonbirds and humans from nonhumans. No person who pretends to any understanding of the natural world can deny these facts any more than she or he can deny that the earth is round, rotates on its axis, and revolves around the sun. The controversies about evolution lie in the realm of the relative importance of various forces in molding evolution.“

—  Richard C. Lewontin
" Evolution/Creation Debate: A Time for Truth http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/8/local/ed-board.pdf", BioScience volume 31 (1981), p. 559; Reprinted in J. Peter Zetterberg, editor, Evolution versus Creationism, Oryx Press, Phoenix, Arizona, 1983.

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„Lysenkoism is held up by bourgeois commentators as the supreme demonstration that conscious ideology cannot inform scientific practice and that "ideology has no place in science." On the other hand, some writers are even now maintaining a Lysenkoist position because they believe that the principles of dialectical materialism contradict the claims of genetics. Both of these claims stem from a vulgarisation of Marxist philosophy through deliberate hostility, in the first case, or ignorance, in the second. Nothing in Marx, Lenin or Mao contradicts the particular physical facts and processes of a particular set of natural phenomena in the objective world, because what they wrote about nature was at a high level of abstraction. The error of the Lysenkoist claim arises from attempting to apply a dialectical analysis of physical problems from the wrong end. Dialectical materialism is not, and has never been, a programmatic method for solving particular physical problems. Rather, dialectical analysis provides an overview and a set of warning signs against particular forms of dogmatism and narrowness of thought. It tells us, "Remember that history may leave an important trace. Remember that being and becoming are dual aspects of nature. Remember that conditions change and that the conditions necessary to the initiation of some process may be destroyed by the process itself. Remember to pay attention to real objects in space and time and not lose them utterly in idealized abstractions. Remember that qualitative effects of context and interaction may be lost when phenomena are isolated." And above all else, "Remember that all the other caveats are only reminders and warning signs whose application to different circumstances of the real world is contingent."“

—  Richard C. Lewontin
"The Problem of Lysenkoism" by Richard Lewontin and , in Hilary and Steven Rose (eds.), The Radicalisation of Science, Macmillan, 1976, p. 58.

„Many of the most fundamental claims of science are against common sense and seem absurd on their face. Do physicists really expect me to accept without serious qualms that the pungent cheese that I had for lunch is really made up of tiny, tasteless, odorless, colorless packets of energy with nothing but empty space between them? Astronomers tell us without apparent embarrassment that they can see stellar events that occurred millions of years ago, whereas we all know that we see things as they happen. … Our willingness to accept scientific claims that are against common sense is the key to an understanding of the real struggle between science and the supernatural. We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs, in spite of its failure to fulfill many of its extravagant promises of health and life, in spite of the tolerance of the scientific community for unsubstantiated just-so stories, because we have a prior commitment, a commitment to materialism. It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel us to accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary, that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that produce material explanations, no matter how counter-intuitive, no matter how mystifying to the uninitiated. Moreover, that materialism is absolute, for we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door. The eminent Kant scholar Lewis Beck used to say that anyone who could believe in God could believe in anything. To appeal to an omnipotent deity is to allow that at any moment the regularities of nature may be ruptured, that miracles may happen.“

—  Richard C. Lewontin
" Billions and Billions of Demons http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1997/jan/09/billions-and-billions-of-demons/" in: The New York Review of Books, 9 January 1997, p. 31 Review of The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark by Carl Sagan Quote often taken out of context, see Lewontin on materialism http://evolutionwiki.org/wiki/Lewontin_on_materialism on evolutionwiki.org, and for example this example http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/102006325?q=Lewontin&p=par at Watchtower Online Library.

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„The great attraction of cultural anthropology in the past was precisely that it seemed to offer such a richness of independent natural experiments; but unfortunately it is now clear that there has been a great deal of historical continuity and exchange among those "independent" experiments, most of which have felt the strong effect of contact with societies organized as modern states. More important, there has never been a human society with unlimited resources, of three sexes, or the power to read other people's minds, or to be transported great distances at the speed of light. How then are we to know the effect on human social organization and history of the need to scrabble for a living, or of the existence of males and females, or of the power to make our tongues drop manna and so to make the worse appear the better reason? A solution to the epistemological impotence of social theory has been to create a literature of imagination and logic in which the consequences of radical alterations in the conditions of human existence are deduced. It is the literature of science fiction. … [S]cience fiction is the laboratory in which extraordinary social conditions, never possible in actuality, are used to illumine the social and historical norm. … Science fiction stories are the Gedanken experiments of social science.“

—  Richard C. Lewontin
" The Last of the Nasties? http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1996/feb/29/the-last-of-the-nasties," The New York Review of Books, 29 February 1996; Review of The Lost World by Michael Crichton

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