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Martin Luther

Date de naissance: 10. novembre 1483
Date de décès: 18. février 1546

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Martin Luther , né le 10 novembre 1483 à Eisleben, en Thuringe et mort le 18 février 1546 dans la même ville, est un frère augustin théologien, professeur d'université, père du protestantisme,,, et réformateur de l'Église dont les idées exercèrent une grande influence sur la Réforme protestante, qui changea le cours de la civilisation occidentale.

Très préoccupé par son salut, il découvre la force libératrice de la foi en Jésus reçue à travers la Bible dans l'épître de Paul aux Romains. Selon Luther , le salut de l'âme est un libre don de Dieu, reçu par la repentance sincère et la foi authentique en Jésus-Christ comme le Messie, sans intercession possible de l'Église. Il défie l'autorité papale en tenant la Bible pour seule source légitime d'autorité chrétienne.

Le 3 janvier 1521, il est excommunié par la bulle pontificale Decet romanum pontificem. L'empereur du Saint-Empire romain germanique et roi d'Espagne, Charles Quint, convoque Martin Luther en 1521 devant la diète de Worms. Un sauf-conduit lui est accordé afin qu'il puisse s'y rendre sans risque. Devant la diète de Worms, il refuse de se rétracter, se déclarant convaincu par le témoignage de l'Écriture et s'estimant soumis à l'autorité de la Bible et de sa conscience plutôt qu'à celle de la hiérarchie ecclésiastique. La Diète de Worms, sous la pression de Charles Quint, décide alors de mettre Martin Luther et ses disciples au ban de l'Empire.

Il est accueilli par son ami l'électeur de Saxe Frédéric III le Sage au château de la Wartbourg, où il compose ses textes les plus connus et les plus diffusés. C'est là qu'il se lance dans une traduction de la Bible en allemand à partir des textes originaux, traduction dont l'influence culturelle sera primordiale, tant pour la fixation de la langue allemande que pour l'établissement des principes de l'art de la traduction.

Certaines de ses prises de position sur les Juifs de son temps furent mal interprétées et récupérées par Hitler et les nazis,. Pour cette raison, et pour les aspects révolutionnaires de sa théologie, son héritage a suscité et continue de susciter de multiples controverses.

Citations Martin Luther

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„They are sinning against the Holy Spirit when they refuse to accept the rebuke of the preachers through whom he speaks.“

— Martin Luther
Context: As David said, “Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, so that thou art justified in thy sentence” [Ps. 51:4]. As a matter of fact, true Christians willingly accept the rebuke and judgment that is in the preaching of God’s word. But those who won’t receive this judgment show plainly that they are really damnable knaves. They are sinning against the Holy Spirit when they refuse to accept the rebuke of the preachers through whom he speaks. Or they are so far gone that they regard our preaching as nothing more than man’s word and so won’t tolerate it. Appeal For Prayer Against the Turks, 1541 (Vermannung zum Gebet wider den Türken), Luther’s Works, 1968, volume 43, , p. 228. Dr. Martin Luther's Sämmtliche Werke, 1842, Erlangen, Johann Konrad Irmischer, ed., vol. 32, p. 84. [http://books.google.com/books?id=4qIUAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA84&dq=%22auch+in+den+Heiligen+Geist+s%C3%BCndigen%22&hl=en&ei=ub6XTeLMFOSY0QG_gpT8Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=%22auch%20in%20den%20Heiligen%20Geist%20s%C3%BCndigen%22&f=false]

„Faith is a living, bold trust in God's grace, so certain of God's favor that it would risk death a thousand times trusting in it.“

— Martin Luther
Context: Faith is a living, bold trust in God's grace, so certain of God's favor that it would risk death a thousand times trusting in it. Such confidence and knowledge of God's grace makes you happy, joyful and bold in your relationship to God and all creatures. The Holy Spirit makes this happen through faith. Because of it, you freely, willingly and joyfully do good to everyone, serve everyone, suffer all kinds of things, love and praise the God who has shown you such grace. An Introduction to St. Paul's Letter to the Romans from<cite>Dr. Martin Luthers Vermischte Deutsche Schriften</cite>. Johann K. Irmischer, ed. Vol. 63(Erlangen: Heyder and Zimmer, 1854), pp.124-125. (EA 63:124-125)[http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/luther-faith.txt]

„It is an unsufferable blasphemy to reject the public ministry or to say that people can become holy without sermons and Church.“

— Martin Luther
Context: It is an unsufferable blasphemy to reject the public ministry or to say that people can become holy without sermons and Church. This involves a destruction of the Church and rebellion against ecclesiastical order; such upheavals must be warded off and punished like all other revolts. In Luther, Hartmann Grisar, 1915, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, vol. 4, p. 126, (referencing, the Corpus Reformatorum, vol. 4, 737-740. [http://books.google.com/books?id=SbkWAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA759&dq=%22werden+ohne+predigt+und+kirchenamt%22&hl=en&ei=s-0oTbyWGo-u8Aaj1cz-AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCIQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=%22werden%20ohne%20predigt%20und%20kirchenamt%22&f=false]) [http://www.archive.org/details/luthergris04grisuoft] [http://books.google.com/books?id=1lMOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA126&dq=%22It+is+an+unsufferable+blasphemy+to+reject+the+public+ministry%22&hl=en&ei=RMCXTdv0KMew0QGV5rmEDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22It%20is%20an%20unsufferable%20blasphemy%20to%20reject%20the%20public%20ministry%22&f=false]

„If Satan can turn God's Word upside down and pervert the Scriptures, what will he do with my words -- or the words of others?“

— Martin Luther
Context: By God's grace, I know Satan very well. If Satan can turn God's Word upside down and pervert the Scriptures, what will he do with my words -- or the words of others? Confession Concerning Christ's Supper, Part 3. Robert E. Smith, tr.<cite>Dr. Martin Luthers Werke: Kritische Gesamtsusgabe</cite>. (Weimar: Herman Boehlaus Nachfolger, 1909), pp.499-500. [http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/luther-quoting.txt]

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„We are aliens and in-laws; they are blood relatives, cousins, and brothers of our Lord. Therefore, if one is to boast of flesh and blood the Jews are actually nearer to Christ than we are.“

— Martin Luther
Context: When we are inclined to boast of our position [as Christians] we should remember that we are but Gentiles, while the Jews are of the lineage of Christ. We are aliens and in-laws; they are blood relatives, cousins, and brothers of our Lord. Therefore, if one is to boast of flesh and blood the Jews are actually nearer to Christ than we are. That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew<cite>Luther's Works</cite>, American Edition (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1962), Volume 45, Page 201.

„The Holy Christian Church is the principal work of God“

— Martin Luther
Context: The Holy Christian Church is the principal work of God, for the sake of which all things were made. In the Church, great wonders daily occur, such as the forgiveness of sins, triumph over death... the gift of righteousness and eternal life. (Commentary on Psalm 143:5) In The Lord's Service: The Grace of Covenant Renewal Worship, 2003, Jeffrey J. Meyers, Canon, Pr., , p. 285. [http://books.google.com/books?id=6CSuYz4zj8wC&pg=PA285&dq=%22for+the+sake+of+which+all+things+were+made%22++luther&hl=en&ei=dcKXTeK3IZCw0QGkzJCBDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22for%20the%20sake%20of%20which%20all%20things%20were%20made%22%20%20luther&f=false] Auslegung vieler schöner Sprüche aus göttlicher Schrift (Exposition of Many Beautiful Verses from Divine Scripture (selection) (1547)), [http://books.google.com/books?id=WCToPQAACAAJ&dq=%22Auslegung+vieler+sch%C3%B6ner+Spr%C3%BCche+%22&hl=en&ei=XcOXTbrhFeyD0QGU_YSADA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA] Dr. Martin Luther's Sämmtliche Werke, 1853, Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Erlangen, Heyder & Zimmer, vol. 52, p. 324. [http://books.google.com/books?id=WsMOAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA324&dq=%22welches+willen+alles+geschaffen+ist,+darinnen+t%C3%A4glich%22&hl=en&ei=FMqXTcuLH8K60QGtgun3Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22welches%20willen%20alles%20geschaffen%20ist%2C%20darinnen%20t%C3%A4glich%22&f=false]

„Be a sinner, and let your sins be strong (sin boldly), but let your trust in Christ be stronger, and rejoice in Christ who is the victor over sin, death, and the world.“

— Martin Luther
Context: If you are a preacher of mercy, do not preach an imaginary but the true mercy. If the mercy is true, you must therefore bear the true, not an imaginary sin. God does not save those who are only imaginary sinners. Be a sinner, and let your sins be strong (sin boldly), but let your trust in Christ be stronger, and rejoice in Christ who is the victor over sin, death, and the world. We will commit sins while we are here, for this life is not a place where justice resides. We, however, says Peter (2. Peter 3:13) are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth where justice will reign. Letter 99, Paragraph 13. Erika Bullmann Flores, Tr. from: <cite>Dr. Martin Luther's Saemmtliche Schriften</cite>Dr. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Georg_Walch Johann Georg Walch] Ed. (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, N.D.), Vol. 15, cols. 2585-2590. [http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/letsinsbe.txt]

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