Francisco de Goya citations

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Francisco de Goya

Date de naissance: 30. mars 1746
Date de décès: 16. avril 1828
Autres noms:Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes,Francisco J. de Goya y Lucientes,E Lucientes Francisco José Goya

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Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, dit Francisco de Goya, né le 30 mars 1746 à Fuendetodos, près de Saragosse, et mort le 16 avril 1828 à Bordeaux, en France, est un peintre et graveur espagnol. Son œuvre inclut des peintures de chevalet, des peintures murales, des gravures et des dessins. Il introduisit plusieurs ruptures stylistiques qui initièrent le romantisme et annoncèrent le début de la peinture contemporaine. L’art goyesque est considéré comme précurseur des avant-gardes picturales du XXe siècle.

Après un lent apprentissage dans sa terre natale, baigné dans le style baroque tardif et les images pieuses, il voyage en Italie en 1770, où il entre en contact avec le néo-classicisme qu’il adopte lorsqu’il s’installe à Madrid au milieu de la décennie, en parallèle avec un style rococo lié à son emploi de dessinateur de tapisserie pour la manufacture royale Santa Barbara. Son enseignement, tant dans ces activités que comme peintre de la Chambre, était assuré par Raphaël Mengs, alors que le peintre espagnol le plus réputé était Francisco Bayeu, beau-frère de Goya.

Il contracte une grave maladie en 1793 qui le rapproche de peintures plus créatives et originales, autour de thèmes moins consensuels que les modèles qu’il avait peints pour la décoration des palais royaux. Une série de tableaux en fer-blanc, qu’il nommait « caprice et invention », initient la phase de maturité du peintre et la transition vers l’esthétique romantique.

Son œuvre reflète de plus les caprices de l’histoire de son temps, et surtout les bouleversements des guerres napoléoniennes en Espagne. La série d’estampes Les Désastres de la guerre est presque un reportage moderne sur les atrocités commises et met en avant-plan un héroïsme où les victimes sont des individus qui n’appartiennent ni à une classe ni à une condition particulière.

La célébrité de son œuvre La Maja nue est en partie liée aux controverses sur l’identité de la belle femme qui lui servit de modèle. Au début du XIXe siècle, il commence également à peindre d’autres portraits et ouvre ainsi la voie à un nouvel art bourgeois. À la fin du conflit franco-espagnol, il peint deux grandes toiles sur le soulèvement du 2 mai 1808 qui établissent un précédent tant esthétique que thématique sur les tableaux historiques, qui non seulement informe sur les événements vécus par le peintre, mais également lance un message d'humanisme universel.

Son chef-d’œuvre est la série de peintures à l’huile sur mur sec qui décorent sa maison de campagne, les Peintures noires. Avec elles, Goya anticipe la peinture contemporaine et différents mouvements avant-gardistes du XXe siècle.

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Citations Francisco de Goya

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„Imagination without reason produces impossible monsters; with reason, it becomes the mother of the arts, and the source of its marvels.“

— Francisco De Goya
quoted by Albert Frederick Calvert, in Goya; an account of his life and works; publisher London J. Lane, 1908; as quoted in Francisco Goya, Hugh Stokes, Herbert Jenkins Limited Publishers, London, 1914, pp. 355-377 Goya wrote this inscription upon a later copy of the etching-plate Capricho no. 43

„[the painting 'Yard with Lunatics' shows].. a yard with lunatics, and two of them fighting completely naked while their warder beats them, and others in sacks; (it is a scene I witnessed at first hand in Zaragoza).“

— Francisco De Goya
letter to his friend Bernardo de Iriarte, 7 Jan, 1794; as quoted by Jane Kromm, in The art of frenzy, 2002, p. 194 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yard_with_Lunatics] The painting 'Yard with Lunatics' (Spanish: Corral de locos) is a small oil-on-tinplate painting completed by Goya between 1793 and 1794; Goya says here that the painting was informed by scenes of institutions he witnessed in his youth in Zaragoza

„I sent you a lithographic proof that shows a fight of young bulls.... and if you found it worthy of distribution, I could send whatever you wish... I once again ask your advice, for I have three others made, of the same size and bullfight subjects.“

— Francisco De Goya
letter to Joaquín Ferrer, Bordeaux, End of 1825; as quoted by Robert Hughes, in: Goya. Borzoi Book - Alfred Knopf, New York, 2003, p. 390 & note 8 Goya's quote indicates how quickly he learned the for him new print method of lithography; the litho-prints here referred became collective known as the 'Bulls of Bordeaux'[https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bullfight_in_a_divided_ring,_from_the_%27Bulls_of_Bordeaux%27_MET_270385.jpg][https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_picador_caught_by_a_bull,_from_the_%27Bulls_of_Bordeaux%27_MET_MM7175.jpg]; and the rarest Goya-prints because they were published in a small edition of one hundred sets by the Bordeaux printer Gaulon.

„To occupy my imagination, which has been depressed by dwelling on my misfortunes, and to compensate at least in part for some of the considerable expenses I have incurred, I set myself to painting a series of cabinet pictures.... they depict themes that cannot usually be dealt with in commissioned works, where 'capricho' [whim] and invention do not have much of a role to play. I thought of sending them to the academy..“

— Francisco De Goya
letter to his friend Bernardo de Iriarte, deputy of the Royal Academy of San Fernando in Madrid, Jan. 1794; as quoted in 'Goya and Iriarte', in Goya his Life and Work, P. Gassier and J. Wilson, 1971, p. 382 cabinet paintings were small portable paintings, which did not need a lot of wall-space and could be moved around at the owner's whim. Goya's famous series 'Caprichos' really begin after physical and probably mental breakdown in 1792. He was 46, and thereafter deaf until his death in 1828

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„I haven't heard them [n. d. r. he's talking about some Spanish popular folk songs] and probably never shall because I no longer go to the places where one could hear them, for I have got into my head that I should maintain a certain presence and air for dignity.... that a man should have, and you can imagine that I'm not very happy about it.“

— Francisco De Goya
letter 206, c. 1787; in Goya, A life in Letters, edited and introduced by Sarah Simmons; transl. Philip Troutman, London, Pimlico, 2004 Goya understands that the social role he has reached (he is royal painter from 1789) will prevent him from attending places where people sing [http://letteraturaartistica.blogspot.nl/2015/09/goya-life-in-letters-edited-and.html]

„Goya in gratitude to his friend Arrieta for the skill and great care with which he saved his [Goya's] life in his acute and dangerous illness, suffered at the end of 1819, at the age of seventy-tree years. He painted this in 1820.“

— Francisco De Goya
inscription by Goya, 1820 Goya painted this long inscription in 1820, - in the tradition of the ex-votos in the churches - in the double-portrait, [of his friend, and of Goya himself as the patient], he made of his doctor Eugenio Garciá Arrieta who helped him in 1819 with a severe illness

„My position is entirely different from what the majority of the public imagine... I want a great deal, firstly because my position entails expenditure, and secondly because I like it. Being a very well-known man I cannot reduce my expenses as other people do. I was about to ask for an increase of salary, but the conditions are so unfavorable that I must set the idea aside.“

— Francisco De Goya
letter to his friend Martín Zapater, [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3915977] and [https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Francisco_de_Goya_-_Portrait_of_Mart%C3%ADn_Zapater_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg], February, 1790, from Francisco Zapater y Gomez: Goya; Noticias biograficas, Zaragoza, 1868, La Perse Verencia, p. 50 Goya is reacting on a request to borrow money, which arouses his quick protest

„Always lines, never forms. Where do they find these lines in Nature? Personally I see only forms that are lit up and forms that are not, planes that advance and planes that recede, relief and depth. My eye never sees outlines or particular features or details...... My brush should not see better than I do. [Goya, in a recall of an overheard conversation]“

— Francisco De Goya
conversation of c. 1808, in the earliest biography of Goya: Goya, by Laurent Matheron, Schulz et Thuillié, Paris 1858; as quoted by Robert Hughes, in: Goya. Borzoi Book - Alfred Knopf, New York, 2003, p. 176 probably not accurate word for word, but according to Robert Hughes it rings true in all essentials, of the old Goya, in exile

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„As I am working for the public, I must continue to amuse them.“

— Francisco De Goya
letter to his friend Don Martín Zapater, c. 1784; taken from Francisco Zapater y Gomez : Goya; Noticias biograficas, Zaragoza, 1868, La Perseverencia, p. 58

„But now? well now, now I have no fear of Witches, goblins, ghosts, thugs, Giants, ghouls, scallywags, etc, nor any sort of body.“

— Francisco De Goya
letter to his friend Don Martín Zapater [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3915977] and [https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Francisco_de_Goya_-_Portrait_of_Mart%C3%ADn_Zapater_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg], Feb. 1784; as quoted in Goya, A life in Letters, edited and introduced by Sarah Simmons; translations by Philip Troutman, London, Pimlico, 2004 The reference to the occult and the world of demons, which then will populate the art of Goya during the 1800's, takes form in a couple of occasions Goya wrote to his friend Martín that he is a painter-demon. [http://letteraturaartistica.blogspot.nl/2015/09/goya-life-in-letters-edited-and.html]

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