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Douglas MacArthur

Date de naissance: 26. janvier 1880
Date de décès: 5. avril 1964

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Douglas MacArthur, né le 26 janvier 1880 à Little Rock et mort le 5 avril 1964 à Washington D.C., est un général américain et field marshal philippin. Il fut le chef d'état-major de l'armée américaine durant les années 1930 et joua un rôle prépondérant dans le théâtre Pacifique de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il reçut la Medal of Honor pour son service durant la Campagne des Philippines. Il fait partie des cinq personnes ayant atteint le grade de général de l'Armée dans l'armée américaine et le seul à avoir été field marshall de l'armée des Philippines.

Douglas MacArthur est né dans une famille militaire de l'Arkansas. Son père, qui finit sa carrière comme major général, avait combattu durant la guerre civile américaine. Suivant la trace paternelle, Douglas Mac Arthur étudia au Texas Military Institute dont il sortit major et à l'académie militaire de West Point où il fut également premier de promotion en 1903. Au cours de l'intervention américaine à Veracruz durant la Révolution mexicaine, il mena une mission de reconnaissance pour laquelle il fut proposé pour la Medal of Honor. En 1917, il passa du grade de major à celui de colonel et devint le chef d'état-major de la 42e division d'infanterie. Il combattit sur le Front de l'Ouest de la Première Guerre mondiale où il atteignit le grade de brigadier-général, fut à nouveau proposé pour la Medal of Honor et reçut deux Distinguished Service Cross et sept Silver Star.

De 1919 à 1922, MacArthur fut le superintendant de l'académie militaire de West Point où il lança plusieurs réformes. En 1924, il fut déployé aux Philippines où il participa au règlement d'une mutinerie de l'armée philippine. En 1925, il devint le plus jeune major-général de l'Armée. Il participa au jugement en cour martiale du brigadier-général Billy Mitchell et fut président du Comité olympique américain lors des Jeux olympiques d'été de 1928 à Amsterdam. En 1930, il devint le chef d'état-major de l'armée américaine et fut impliqué dans l'expulsion des protestataires de la Bonus Army à Washington en 1932 et dans l'organisation du Civilian Conservation Corps. Il quitta l'armée américaine en 1937 pour devenir conseiller militaire auprès du Commonwealth des Philippines.

À l'été 1941, MacArthur fut rappelé en service actif en tant que commandant de l'USAFFE. Les Philippines furent envahies par les Japonais en décembre 1941 et les forces américaines durent se replier à Bataan où elles résistèrent jusqu'en mai 1942. En mars 1942, MacArthur, sa famille et son état-major quittèrent l'île de Corregidor à bord de PT boats et rallièrent l'Australie où MacArthur devint le commandant suprême des forces alliées dans le Pacifique sud-ouest. Il reçut la Medal of Honor pour sa défense des Philippines. Après plus de deux ans de combats dans le Pacifique, il réalisa sa promesse de revenir aux Philippines. Il accepta formellement la reddition japonaise le 2 septembre 1945 et il supervisa l'occupation du Japon de 1945 à 1951. En tant que dirigeant effectif du Japon, il organisa de profonds changements économiques, politiques et sociaux. MacArthur mena les forces des Nations unies durant la guerre de Corée de 1950 jusqu'au 11 avril 1951 lorsqu'il fut relevé de son commandement par le président Harry S. Truman. Il devint ensuite président du comité de direction de l'entreprise Remington Rand.

Citations Douglas MacArthur

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„Men since the beginning of time have sought peace.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: Men since the beginning of time have sought peace. Various methods through the ages have been attempted to devise an international process to prevent or settle disputes between nations. From the very start workable methods were found in so far as individual citizens were concerned, but the mechanics of an instrumentality of larger international scope have never been successful. Military alliances, balances of power, Leagues of Nations, all in turn failed, leaving the only path to be by way of the crucible of war. The utter destructiveness of war now blocks out this alternative. We have had our last chance. If we will not devise some greater and more equitable system, Armageddon will be at our door.

„I have constantly called for the new political decisions essential to a solution.
Efforts have been made to distort my position. It has been said, in effect, that I was a warmonger. Nothing could be further from the truth. I know war as few other men now living know it, and nothing to me is more revolting. I have long advocated its complete abolition, as its very destructiveness on both friend and foe has rendered it useless as a means of settling international disputes. … But once war is forced upon us, there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: We could hold in Korea by constant maneuver and in an approximate area where our supply line advantages were in balance with the supply line disadvantages of the enemy, but we could hope at best for only an indecisive campaign with its terrible and constant attrition upon our forces if the enemy utilized its full military potential. I have constantly called for the new political decisions essential to a solution. Efforts have been made to distort my position. It has been said, in effect, that I was a warmonger. Nothing could be further from the truth. I know war as few other men now living know it, and nothing to me is more revolting. I have long advocated its complete abolition, as its very destructiveness on both friend and foe has rendered it useless as a means of settling international disputes. … But once war is forced upon us, there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end.

„Today, freedom is on the offensive, democracy is on the march.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: We stand in Tokyo today reminiscent of our countryman, Commodore Perry, ninety-two years ago. His purpose was to bring to Japan an era of enlightenment and progress, by lifting the veil of isolation to the friendship, trade, and commerce of the world. But alas the knowledge thereby gained of western science was forged into an instrument of oppression and human enslavement. Freedom of expression, freedom of action, even freedom of thought were denied through appeal to superstition, and through the application of force. We are committed by the Potsdam Declaration of principles to see that the Japanese people are liberated from this condition of slavery. … To the Pacific basin has come the vista of a new emancipated world. Today, freedom is on the offensive, democracy is on the march. Today, in Asia as well as in Europe, unshackled peoples are tasting the full sweetness of liberty, the relief from fear.

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„I address you with neither rancor nor bitterness in the fading twilight of life, with but one purpose in mind: to serve my country. The issues are global and so interlocked that to consider the problems of one sector, oblivious to those of another, is but to court disaster for the whole.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: I address you with neither rancor nor bitterness in the fading twilight of life, with but one purpose in mind: to serve my country. The issues are global and so interlocked that to consider the problems of one sector, oblivious to those of another, is but to court disaster for the whole. While Asia is commonly referred to as the Gateway to Europe, it is no less true that Europe is the Gateway to Asia, and the broad influence of the one cannot fail to have its impact upon the other.

„In war there is no substitute for victory.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: War's very object is victory, not prolonged indecision. In war there is no substitute for victory.

„It is part of the general pattern of misguided policy that our country is now geared to an arms economy which was bred in an artificially induced psychosis of war hysteria and nurtured upon an incessant propaganda of fear.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: It is part of the general pattern of misguided policy that our country is now geared to an arms economy which was bred in an artificially induced psychosis of war hysteria and nurtured upon an incessant propaganda of fear. While such an economy may produce a sense of seeming prosperity for the moment, it rests on an illusionary foundation of complete unreliability and renders among our political leaders almost a greater fear of peace than is their fear of war. Speech to the Michigan legislature, in Lansing, Michigan (15 May 1952), published in General MacArthur Speeches and Reports 1908-1964 (2000) by Edward T. Imparato, p. 206, much of this was used in speeches of 1951, as quoted in The Twenty-year Revolution from Roosevelt to Eisenhower (1954) by Chesly Manly, p. 3, and Total Insecurity : The Myth Of American Omnipotence (2004) by Carol Brightman, p. 182<!--

„There is no substitute for victory.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: It seems strangely difficult for some to realize that here in Asia is where the Communist conspirators have elected to make their play for global conquest, and that we have joined the issue thus raised on the battlefield; that here we fight Europe’s war with arms while the diplomats there still fight it with words; that if we lose the war to communism in Asia the fall of Europe is inevitable, win it and Europe most probably would avoid war and yet preserve freedom. As you pointed out, we must win. There is no substitute for victory. Letter to Representative Joseph W. Martin, Jr., (20 March 1951); read to the House by Martin on April 5.

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„I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barrack ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that "old soldiers never die; they just fade away."
And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: I am closing my 52 years of military service. When I joined the Army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all of my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished, but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barrack ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that "old soldiers never die; they just fade away." And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Audio clip (ogg format)

„We have known the bitterness of defeat and the exultation of triumph, and from both we have learned there can be no turning back. We must go forward to preserve in peace what we won in war.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: We have known the bitterness of defeat and the exultation of triumph, and from both we have learned there can be no turning back. We must go forward to preserve in peace what we won in war. A new era is upon us. Even the lesson of victory itself brings with it profound concern, both for our future security and the survival of civilization. The destructiveness of the war potential, through progressive advances in scientific discovery, has in fact now reached a point which revises the traditional concepts of war.

„If we will not devise some greater and more equitable system, Armageddon will be at our door.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: Men since the beginning of time have sought peace. Various methods through the ages have been attempted to devise an international process to prevent or settle disputes between nations. From the very start workable methods were found in so far as individual citizens were concerned, but the mechanics of an instrumentality of larger international scope have never been successful. Military alliances, balances of power, Leagues of Nations, all in turn failed, leaving the only path to be by way of the crucible of war. The utter destructiveness of war now blocks out this alternative. We have had our last chance. If we will not devise some greater and more equitable system, Armageddon will be at our door.

„Today the guns are silent. A great tragedy has ended. A great victory has been won.“

— Douglas MacArthur
Context: Today the guns are silent. A great tragedy has ended. A great victory has been won. The skies no longer rain with death — the seas bear only commerce — men everywhere walk upright in the sunlight. The entire world lies quietly at peace. The holy mission has been completed. And in reporting this to you, the people, I speak for the thousands of silent lips, forever stilled among the jungles and the beaches and in the deep waters of the Pacific which marked the way.

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