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Avicenne

Date de naissance: 21. août 980
Date de décès: 24. juin 1037
Autres noms:Ibn Síná

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Abu ʾAli al-Husayn Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Sina, dit Avicenne, ou Ibn Sīnā ,

né le 7 août 980 à Afshéna, près de Boukhara, dans la province de Grand Khorasan et mort en juin 1037 à Hamadan ,, est un philosophe et médecin médiéval persan, de religion musulmane. Rédigeant principalement en arabe classique, il s'intéressa à de nombreuses sciences, comme l'astronomie, l'alchimie, et la psychologie.

Ses disciples l'appelaient « Cheikh el-Raïs », prince des savants, le plus grand des médecins, le Maître par excellence, le troisième Maître .

Ses œuvres principales sont l'encyclopédie médicale Qanûn et ses deux encyclopédies scientifiques al Shifa et Danesh Nâma .

Dans son Qanun, il opère une vaste synthèse médico-philosophique avec la logique d'Aristote, combinée avec le néo-platonisme, élevant la dignité de la médecine comme discipline intellectuelle, compatible avec le monothéisme. Son influence sera prédominante en Occident médiéval latin jusqu'au XVIe siècle.

Si son œuvre médicale n'a plus qu'un intérêt historique, son œuvre philosophique se situe au carrefour de la pensée orientale et de la pensée occidentale. Elle reste vivante au début du XXIe siècle dans le cadre de l'Islam iranien. Elle continue d'être étudiée en Occident du point de vue de la philosophie, de l'épistémologie et des sciences cognitives.

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Citations Avicenne

„Now it is established in the sciences that no knowledge is acquired save through the study of its causes and beginnings, if it has had causes and beginnings; nor completed except by knowledge of its accidents and accompanying essentials.“

—  Avicenna
Context: The knowledge of anything, since all things have causes, is not acquired or complete unless it is known by its causes. Therefore in medicine we ought to know the causes of sickness and health. And because health and sickness and their causes are sometimes manifest, and sometimes hidden and not to be comprehended except by the study of symptoms, we must also study the symptoms of health and disease. Now it is established in the sciences that no knowledge is acquired save through the study of its causes and beginnings, if it has had causes and beginnings; nor completed except by knowledge of its accidents and accompanying essentials. Of these causes there are four kinds: material, efficient, formal, and final. "On Medicine, (c. 1020) http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1020Avicenna-Medicine.html

„God, the supreme being, is neither circumscribed by space, nor touched by time; he cannot be found in a particular direction, and his essence cannot change.“

—  Avicenna
Context: God, the supreme being, is neither circumscribed by space, nor touched by time; he cannot be found in a particular direction, and his essence cannot change. The secret conversation is thus entirely spiritual; it is a direct encounter between God and the soul, abstracted from all material constraints. As quoted in 366 Readings From Islam (2000), edited by Robert Van der Weyer

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„The knowledge of anything, since all things have causes, is not acquired or complete unless it is known by its causes.“

—  Avicenna
Context: The knowledge of anything, since all things have causes, is not acquired or complete unless it is known by its causes. Therefore in medicine we ought to know the causes of sickness and health. And because health and sickness and their causes are sometimes manifest, and sometimes hidden and not to be comprehended except by the study of symptoms, we must also study the symptoms of health and disease. Now it is established in the sciences that no knowledge is acquired save through the study of its causes and beginnings, if it has had causes and beginnings; nor completed except by knowledge of its accidents and accompanying essentials. Of these causes there are four kinds: material, efficient, formal, and final. "On Medicine, (c. 1020) http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1020Avicenna-Medicine.html

„An ignorant doctor is the aide-de-camp of death.“

—  Avicenna
As quoted in Familiar Medical Quotations (1968) by Maurice B. Strauss

„I [prefer] a short life with width to a narrow one with length.“

—  Avicenna
As quoted in Avicenna (Ibn Sina): Muslim Physician And Philosopher of the Eleventh Century http://books.google.com.bh/books?id=B8k3fsvGRyEC&lpg=PA85&dq=I%20prefer%20a%20short%20life%20with%20width%20to%20a%20narrow%20one%20with%20length&pg=PA85#v=onepage&q=I%20prefer%20a%20short%20life%20with%20width%20to%20a%20narrow%20one%20with%20length&f=false (2006), by Aisha Khan p. 85, which cites Genius of Arab Civilizations by M.A. Martin.

„Medicine considers the human body as to the means by which it is cured and by which it is driven away from health.“

—  Avicenna
As quoted in The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World, 610-2003 http://books.google.com.bh/books?id=KTWDxDEY-Q0C&lpg=PA75&dq=Medicine%20considers%20the%20human%20body%20as%20to%20the%20means%20by%20which%20it%20is%20cured%20and%20by%20which%20it%20is%20driven%20away%20from%20health.&pg=PA75#v=onepage&q=Medicine%20considers%20the%20human%20body%20as%20to%20the%20means%20by%20which%20it%20is%20cured%20and%20by%20which%20it%20is%20driven%20away%20from%20health.&f=false (2006), by Hunt Janin, p. 75.

„The world is divided into men who have wit and no religion and men who have religion and no wit.“

—  Avicenna
This was declared without citation to have been attributed to Avicenna in A Rationalist Encyclopaedia : A Book of Reference on Religion, Philosophy, Ethics, and Science (1950), by Joseph McCabe, p. 43;<!-- probably because of a misreading of that article by McCabe --> it was also later wrongly attributed to Averroes in The Atheist World‎ (1991) by Madalyn Murray O'Hair, p. 46. It actually originates as a statement by the atheist Al-Maʿarri, earlier translated into English in A Short History of Freethought Ancient and Modern (1906) by John Mackinnon Robertson, Vol. I, Ch. VIII : Freethought under Islam, p. 269, in the form: "The world holds two classes of men ; intelligent men without religion, and religious men without intelligence."

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